WWII Nuremberg IMT Trial Results

Nuremberg IMT Trial Results

The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany. The first, and best known of these trials, described as “the greatest trial in history” by Norman Birkett, one of the British judges who presided over it, was the trial of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT). Held between 20 November 1945 and 1 October 1946, the Tribunal was given the task of trying 23 of the most important political and military leaders of the Third Reich, though one of the defendants, Martin Bormann, was tried in absentia, while another, Robert Ley, committed suicide within a week of the trial’s commencement. Not included were Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels, all of whom had committed suicide several months before the indictment was signed. The second set of trials of lesser war criminals was conducted under Control Council Law No. 10 at the U.S. Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT); among these included the Doctors’ Trial and the Judges’ Trial. This article primarily deals with the IMT.

The International Military Tribunal was opened on November 19, 1945, in the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg. The first session was presided over by the Soviet judge, Nikitchenko. The prosecution entered indictments against 24 major war criminals and seven organizations – the leadership of the Nazi party, the Reich Cabinet, the Schutzstaffel (SS), Sicherheitsdienst (SD), the Gestapo, the Sturmabteilung (SA) and the “General Staff and High Command”, comprising several categories of senior military officers. These organizations were to be declared “criminal” if found guilty.

The indictments were for:

1. Participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peace

2. Planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace

3. War crimes

4. Crimes against humanity

The 24 accused were, with respect to each charge, either indicted but not convicted (I), indicted and found guilty (G), or not charged (-), as listed below by defendant, charge, and eventual outcome:

Name Count Penalty Notes
1 2 3 4
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R14128A, Martin Bormann.jpg

Martin Bormann

I G G Death Successor to Hess as Nazi Party Secretary. Sentenced to death in absentia. Remains found in Berlin in 1972 and dated to 1945; thought to have been killed trying to flee Berlin in the last few days of the war.
Nazi Personalities- Grossadmiral Karl Doenitz (1891-1984) A14899.jpg

Karl Dönitz

I G G 10 years Leader of the Kriegsmarine from 1943, succeeded Raeder. Initiator of the U-boat campaign. Briefly became President of Germany following Hitler’s death. Convicted of carrying out unrestricted submarine warfare in breach of the 1936 Second London Naval Treaty, but was not punished for that charge because the United States committed the same breach. Defense attorney: Otto Kranzbühler
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-011-13, Hans Frank.jpg

Hans Frank

I G G Death Reich Law Leader 1933–45 and Governor-General of the General Government in occupied Poland 1939–45. Expressed repentance. Hanged 16 October 1946.
Wilhelm Frick 72-919.jpg

Wilhelm Frick

I G G G Death Hitler’s Minister of the Interior 1933–43 and Reich Protector of Bohemia-Moravia 1943–45. Co-authored the Nuremberg Race Laws. Hanged 16 October 1946.
Hans Fritzsche12.jpg

Hans Fritzsche

I I I Acquitted Popular radio commentator; head of the news division of the Nazi Propaganda Ministry. Released early in 1950. Fritzsche had made himself a career within German radio, because his voice was similar to Goebbels’.
Waltherfunk45.jpg

Walther Funk

I G G G Life imprisonment Hitler’s Minister of Economics; succeeded Schacht as head of the Reichsbank. Released because of ill health on 16 May 1957. Died 31 May 1960.
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-13805, Hermann Göring.jpg

Hermann Göring

G G G G Death Reichsmarschall, Commander of the Luftwaffe 1935–45, Chief of the 4-Year Plan 1936–45, and original head of the Gestapo before turning it over to the SS in April 1934. Originally the second-highest-ranked member of the Nazi Party and Hitler’s designated successor, he fell out of favor with Hitler in April 1945. Highest ranking Nazi official to be tried at Nuremberg. Committed suicide the night before his execution.
Bundesarchiv Bild 146II-849, Rudolf Heß.jpg

Rudolf Hess

G G I I Life imprisonment Hitler’s Deputy Führer until he flew to Scotland in 1941 in an attempt to broker peace with the United Kingdom. Had been imprisoned since then. After trial, incarcerated at Spandau Prison where he allegedly committed suicide in 1987.
Alfred Jodl USA-E-Ardennes-2.jpg

Alfred Jodl

G G G G Death Wehrmacht Generaloberst, Keitel’s subordinate and Chief of the OKW’s Operations Division 1938–45. Signed orders for the summary execution of Allied commandos and Soviet commissars Signed the instruments of unconditional surrender on 7 May 1945 in Reims as the representative of Karl Dönitz. Hanged 16 October 1946. Posthumously rehabilitated in 1953.
ErnstKaltenbrunner-12.jpg

Ernst Kaltenbrunner

I G G Death Highest-ranking SS leader to be tried at Nuremberg. Chief of RSHA 1943–45, the Nazi organ comprising the intelligence service (SD), Secret State Police (Gestapo) and Criminal Police (Kripo) and having overall command over the Einsatzgruppen. Hanged 16 October 1946.
Keitel Court.jpg

Wilhelm Keitel

G G G G Death Head of Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) and de facto defence minister 1938–45. Known for his unquestioning loyalty to Hitler. Signed numerous orders calling for soldiers and political prisoners to be executed. Expressed repentance. Hanged 16 October 1946.
Bundesarchiv Bild 102-12331, Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach.jpg

Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach

I I I Major industrialist. C.E.O. of Friedrich Krupp AG 1912–45. Medically unfit for trial; he had been partially paralyzed since 1941. Due to an error, Gustav, instead of his son Alfried (who ran Krupp for his father during most of the war), was selected for indictment. The prosecutors attempted to substitute his son in the indictment, but the judges rejected this due to proximity to trial. However, the charges against him remained on record in the event he should recover (he died in February 1950). Alfried was tried in a separate Nuremberg trial (the Krupp Trial) for the use of slave labor, thereby escaping worse charges and possible execution.
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2008-0922-501, Robert Ley.jpg

Robert Ley

I I I I Head of DAF, German Labor Front. Committed suicide on 25 October 1945, before the trial began. Indicted but neither acquitted nor found guilty as trial did not proceed.
Konstantin von Neurath crop.jpg

Baron Konstantin von Neurath

G G G G 15 years Minister of Foreign Affairs 1932–38, succeeded by Ribbentrop. Later, Protector of Bohemia and Moravia 1939–43. On furlough since 1941, he resigned in 1943 because of a dispute with Hitler. Released (ill health) 6 November 1954 after suffering a heart attack. Died 14 August 1956.
Vonpapen1.jpg

Franz von Papen

I I Acquitted Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and Vice-Chancellor under Hitler in 1933–34. Ambassador to Austria 1934–38 and ambassador to Turkey 1939–44. Although acquitted at Nuremberg, von Papen was reclassified as a war criminal in 1947 by a German de-Nazification court, and sentenced to eight years’ hard labour. He was acquitted following appeal after serving two years.
Erich Raeder.jpg

Erich Raeder

G G G Life imprisonment Commander In Chief of the Kriegsmarine from 1928 until his retirement in 1943, succeeded by Dönitz. Released (ill health) 26 September 1955. Died 6 November 1960.
GERibbentrop.jpg

Joachim von Ribbentrop

G G G G Death Ambassador-Plenipotentiary 1935–36. Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1936–38. Minister of Foreign Affairs 1938–45. Hanged 16 October 1946
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1985-0723-500, Alfred Rosenberg.jpg

Alfred Rosenberg

G G G G Death Racial theory ideologist. Later, Minister of the Eastern Occupied Territories 1941–45. Hanged 16 October 1946.
Fritz Sauckel.jpg

Fritz Sauckel

I I G G Death Gauleiter of Thuringia 1927–45. Plenipotentiary of the Nazi slave labor program 1942–45. Hanged 16 October 1946. Defense attorney: Robert Servatius
HSchacht.jpg

Dr. Hjalmar Schacht

I I Acquitted Prominent banker and economist. Pre-war president of the Reichsbank 1923–30 & 1933–38 and Economics Minister 1934–37. Admitted to violating the Treaty of Versailles. Many at Nuremberg alleged that the British had brought about Schacht’s acquittal to safeguard German industrialists and financiers; Francis Biddle revealed Geoffrey Lawrence had argued that Schacht, being a “man of character”, was nothing like the other “ruffians” on trial. By 1944, he had been imprisoned in a concentration camp by the Nazis, and was not pleased to be put on trial as a major war criminal.
Joachim von Ribbentrop and Baldur von Schirach crop.jpg

Baldur von Schirach

I G 20 years Head of the Hitlerjugend from 1933–40, Gauleiter of Vienna 1940–45. Expressed repentance.
Inquart crop.jpg

Arthur Seyss-Inquart

I G G G Death Instrumental in the Anschluss and briefly Austrian Chancellor 1938. Deputy to Frank in Poland 1939–40. Later, Reichskommissar of the occupied Netherlands 1940–45. Expressed repentance. Hanged 16 October 1946.
Albert-Speer-72-929.jpg

Albert Speer

I I G G 20 Years Hitler’s friend, favorite architect, and Minister of Armaments from 1942 until the end of the war. In this capacity, he was ultimately responsible for the use of slave labourers from the occupied territories in armaments production. Expressed repentance.
Julius Streicher 72-920 crop.jpg

Julius Streicher

I G Death Gauleiter of Franconia 1922–40, when he was relieved of authority but allowed by Hitler to keep his official title. Publisher of the anti-Semitic weekly newspaper Der Stürmer. Hanged 16 October 1946.

[Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuremberg_trials Apr 2015 ++]